In this article, the following topics are discussed :

  • Assumptions
  • Identifying supply the assumption questions
  • Strategy for supply the assumption questions
  • How to identify premises and conclusions?
  • Pattern of Assumption Questions

ASSUMPTIONS

These are premises that are accepted as true or as certain to happen, without proof.

Assumptions are unstated premises and can make or break the conclusion of the thought


IDENTIFYING SUPPLY THE ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS

You will be able to spot a supply the assumption question because it will usually mention the word ‘assumption’ in the question, for example:

Which of the following is an assumption…

The argument above is based on which of the following assumptions?

…relies on which of the following assumptions?


STRATEGY FOR SUPPLY THE ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS

  1. Identify the premises of the argument.
  2. Identify the conclusion. Remember, that’s usually in the first or last sentence of the text.
  3. Identify the gap in the logic of the argument. What’s missing or needed to make this argument convincing?
  4. What’s the new element or factor in the conclusion? The assumption will probably introduce it.
  5. Go through each answer choice. Does it strengthen the conclusion? If not, then eliminate it. Also eliminate silly or nonsensical answer choices.
  6. Choose! Don’t waste time!

Sound complicated? Well, give it a go with an example question and see how you get on.

New medical studies indicate that if the average employee improves his physical health, then his productivity also increases markedly. Company XYZ should therefore introduce mandatory exercise programs every morning in order to augment productivity.

The author assumes which of the following to be true?

  1. The mandatory exercise programs will be successful in improving the physical health of the employees at XYZ.
  2. Employees who take exercise programs at work are no more productive than are employees who take exercise programs outside of work.
  3. Employees who exercise sleep better than employees who do not do so do.
  4. Employees who exercise at work often complain of tiredness throughout the day.
  5. Employees often resist mandatory exercise programs, viewing them as intrusions on their privacy and on their labour rights.

We can see that this a supply the assumption question because it asks us which of the answers is assumed by the author, so we can apply our strategy to this question.

The correct answer choice must fill the gap in the logic, and also support the conclusion.

1. Identify the premises of the argument

First, we must identify the premise(s), and then the conclusion. The first premise in the text says that 1) improved physicality leads to 2) (the second premise) increased productivity.

2. Identify the conclusion of the argument

The conclusion states that therefore 1) the exercise program will lead to 2) increased productivity.

3. Identify the gap in the argument

There is a gap in the logic here. To correct this gap in the argument, we must say that 1) exercise program leads to 2) improved physicality which leads to 3) increased productivity.

4. What is the new element in the conclusion?

The part about the exercise program. So we must establish the link between the exercise program and the improved physicality.

5. Process of elimination

We can also make eliminations.

B says that employees who take exercise programs at work are no more productive than those who take them at work, which actually weakens the main idea and therefore is not a good assumption.

Whether employees who exercise or not get more sleep has little bearing on whether the plan will work, so C is not a good answer.

D states that employees who exercise at work often complain of tiredness throughout the day, which does not support the conclusion and thus should be eliminated.

E says that employees often resist such programs, which also does not support the argument and can be discarded.

6. Choose an answer

A, the answer, fills the gap in the logic nicely by stating that the mandatory exercise programs will be successful in improving the physical health of the employees at XYZ.

It also supports and strengthens the conclusion, which is another requirement of the assumption.

Additionally, it introduces the new element in the conclusion, the mandatory exercise program.

Therefore, for all these reasons, A is the best answer.

We see that if the assumption is true, then the conclusion has to be true whereas if the assumption is invalid then the conclusion has to be invalid.


HOW TO IDENTIFY PREMISES AND CONCLUSIONS

Reliable clues are provided by certain keywords, which are often used to identify premises and conclusions.

Premise indicators:

The reason is that premises are indicated by keywords.
Because premises are indicated by keywords.
Since premises are indicated by keywords.
As premises are indicated by keywords.
On the basis of premises indicated by keywords.
It follows from premises indicated by keywords.
In view of premises indicated by keywords.
We may infer from premises indicated by keywords.

They signal the presentation of evidence and reasons in support of a fact or a claim.

Conclusion indicators:

Accordingly, conclusions are easy to find.
Clearly, conclusions are easy to find.
Consequently, conclusions are easy to find.
This indicates that conclusions are easy to find.
Hence, conclusions are easy to find.
It follows that conclusions are easy to find.
So, conclusions are easy to find.
Therefore, conclusions are easy to find.
This indicates that conclusions are easy to find.
This shows that conclusions are easy to find.
Thus, conclusions are easy to find.
We can infer that conclusions are easy to find.

They cannot stand alone, i.e. a statement that needs to be supported by premises.

If we cannot find the conclusion, look for the premise instead. These are the parts of the arguments that support the conclusion. Lets us see an example where the premises have been stated and a conclusion is to be provided.

An assumption is also a premise but it is an unstated one. It is a line of thought based on which the author makes a conclusion. The author’s conclusion is always dependent on an assumption.

An assumption is something we take for valid or granted based on given statement. In this chapter, one statement is followed by two assumptions. We have to find the assumption that implicit the statement. So, we have to follow certain notes to rule out invalid assumptions.


PATTERN OF ASSUMPTION QUESTIONS

Statement : Double your money in One Year.

Assumptions :   I. The Bank  is not genuine. II. People want their money to grow.

  • Only assumption I is implicit
  • Only assumption II is implicit
  • Either I or II is implicit
  • Neither I nor II is implicit
  • Both I and II are implicit

So now this is structure of statement and assumption questions which is asked in Placement tests. What would be the answer? Guess it, bank is not genuine is not an assumption at all, it is a common sense that every banks have their own propaganda to promote their products. So, only assumption II is concluded with mentioned statement.

Answer is Only assumption II is implicit

Another example of statement and assumption

Statement : “Picture will start at 6 pm. “You are requested to take your Tickets before 6 pm.

Assumptions :

  1. I) Picture will start as scheduled.
  2. II) If a Customer is not in his seat before 6 pm, the Picture will not start.

Answer is Only assumption I is implicit

Statement : “India won the toss and choose to bat first against Pakistan”

Assumption : (I) Moisture might be fallen at night.

(II) India is playing with no spinners.

Answer is Both I and II implicit

Statement : “Jadeja Scores 96runs in 56 balls against Pakistan at Dhaka “

Assumption : (I) Jadeja is from Gujarat

(II) Jadeja has strong muscles

Answer is Neither I nor II is implicit

 

Simple Idea to solve Statement – Assumption Question 

  • If Comparison is given any assumption, that assumption will be false.
  • If there is a comparison between past and present in any assumption, that assumption will be false.
  • If statement is given in statement in assumption, that assumption will be wrong.
  • If assumption contains any order, request, suggestion etc. then assumption will be true.
  • If these words are there in assumption like may, much, many, to large extent, then assumption will be implicit.
  • If words like but, certainly, hardly, why, which etc. are there in assumption, that assumption will not be implicit.
  • An assumption will always be positive in sense.

Please consider all the above given examples of statement and reasoning in order to learn to deal with assumption problem.

Conclusion: The Placement Stricker must have a command over English and also must try to relate to the question and the statement. The questions are very tricky. When it comes to reasoning then it is really tough .The mind has to be really alert and very sharp. Therefore be smart enough to solve the problems of the exam.

Now let’s start the detail of Problems on Statement and Assumption.