In this article we are going to discuss the following topics :

  • Verification of Truth of the Statement
  • Verbal Classification
  • a) Alphabet/ Letter Classification
  • b) Word Classification
  • c) Jumbled words/Letters.

VERIFICATION OF TRUTH OF THE STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION

Verification of truth of statements is based on such truth for the facts that will always hold true and strong.

In this, we deal with problems based on some objects. These objects have many parts but there is one part which really/exactly defines the object or the main feature of that object. In these problems we have to stress only on the truth of the fact that always good.

Some of the examples are discussed here:

Example 1:

A pen always has ……

(a) nib                (b) ink            (c)  refill         (d) plastic

Answer and Explanation

Answer1. A, Logic is without ink, refill, plastic are secondary requirement of pen. Nib is the primary requirement.

 

Example 2

A shoe always has …..

(a) design         (b) leather       (c)  sole          (d) laces

Answer and Explanation

Answer 2. C , Primary requirement of a shoe is sole.

 

Example 3

A child must have…

(a) toy              (b) parents       (c) friends     (d) education

Answer and Explanation

Answer 3.B , Primary requirement of a child is parents.

 

Example 4

A disease always has……

(a) cure           (b) germ         (c) patient       (d) medicine    (e) cause

Answer and Explanation

Answer 4.E

 

Example 5

Atmosphere always has ….

(a) air    (b) oxygen     (c) moisture    (d )germs        (e) dust

Answer and Explanation

Answer 5.A

Conclusion: The purpose of Verification of Truth is the knowledge implementation.


VERBAL CLASSIFICATION

INTRODUCTION:

Verbal classification test which is popularly known as “odd man out” test requires assorting of the items of a given group on the basis of a certain common quality they possess and then spotting the odd one in the group—the stranger out.

These questions test the abilities of the candidates to observe the differences and similarities among objects or things. In this type of questions out of 5-6 objects (may be letters, words, numbers or figures) all but one is similar in some respect. You have to sort out which one is different (i.e., does not bear the same characteristics as the others in the group) and that gives you the correct answer. There is no rule of thumb to solve problems of this type. You have to sort each answer choice to find out whether it has any association or connection with the other items of the question. The correct answer choice will be that item which has/does not have an association with the other words.

Verbal classification questions may involve alphabet/ letter, word or numbers, which are as follows:

 

1) ALPHABET/LETTER CLASSIFICATION

In this type you have to identify an alphabet or a group of alphabets that are different from other given items.

Directions for Questions 1-32: In each question below group of letters/alphabets/words are given, four of which are alike in some respect and one is different. Find out the group which is different and mark your answer choice on the answer sheet.

Questions: I. Relationship based on position of letters/alphabets

Sample Questions:

  1. (A) KL     (B) OP     (C) AC     (D) NO     (E) WX
  2. (A) EV     (B) ZA     (C) CX     (D) DU     (E) YB
  3. (A) KMN (B) BCD (C) WXY (D) PQR (E) FGH
  4. (A) PU (B) AO (C) IZ (D) KI (E) LE
  5. (A) Bde (B) Klm (C) nOP (D) Rst (E) Cbk
  6. (A) AbC (B) dEF (C) GhI (D) KlM (E) PqR
  7. (A) ABcd (B) EFgh (C) ijKL (D) MNop (E) QRst
  8. (A) pQrS (B) dEfG (C) bCdE (D) kLmN (E) uvWX
  9. (A) KLMN (B) ABCD (C) EFGH (D) IJKL (E) UVWX
  10. (A) PiQR (B) DoCK (C) AtCD (D) BuLK (E) CePT
  11. (A) Bond (B) Ball (C) Pick (D) Talk (E) Boil
  12. (A) TPDC (B) ONGC (C) KBFM (D) SMPK (E) TDMB
  13. (A) DDEEFF (B) KKLLMM (C) AABCDD (D) PPQQRR (E) MMNNOO
  14. (A) BdFh (B) CeGi (C) NpRt (D) LnPr (E) IkLn
  15. (A) RsuR (B) MnpR (C) BceG (D) KlnP (E) PqsU
  16. (A) PaaD (B) TbbE (C) KmmP (D) LttE (E) BkkN
  17. (A) A (B) F (C) H (D) M (E) K
  18. (A) P12Q (B) C35D (C) K23L (D) M45N (E) H78I
  19. (A) O (B) S (C) G (D) C (E) T
  20. (A) 4A6C (B) 2D4F (C) 5K6M (D) 7P9R (E) 1B3D

 

ANSWERS:

  1. (C) Consecutive letters are there in all the other groups except ‘C’ where one letter has been skipped A(B)C.
  2. (D) Here except ‘D’ all the other pairs consist of one letter from the beginning and one letter from the end of the alphabet series.
  3. (A) Here except ‘A’ all the other groups consist of three consecutive letters. In ‘A’ one letter has been skipped K(L)MN.
  4. (B) Here each pair consists of one consonant and one vowel, except in ‘B’ where both the letters are vowels.
  5. (C) In each pair except ‘C’ consists of a capital letter in the beginning followed by two small letters; but in ‘C’ one small letter in the beginning followed by two capital letters.
  6. (B) Here except ‘B’ all the other groups consist of a small letter in between two capital letters. In ‘B’ the small letter is in the beginning.
  7. (C) All the other groups consist of two capital letters in the beginning followed by two small letters.
  8. (E) In all the other groups every alternate letter is either small or capital. But in ‘E’ two consecutive letters in the beginning are small.
  9. (A) In all the other groups there are vowels in the beginning. But in ‘A’ there is no vowel.
  10. (C) In each group except ‘C’ every second letter is a vowel, but in ‘C’ the letters begin with a vowel.
  11. (E) In each group except ‘E’ there is only one vowel but in ‘E’ there are two vowels, ‘o’ and ‘i’.
  12. (B) In each group except ‘B’ all the letters are consonant, but in ‘B’ there is one vowel (o).
  13. (C) In all the other groups letters are repeated except in (C), where the letter ‘B’ is not repeated.
  14. (E) In each group except ‘E’, one letter has been skipped between each letter, e.g. B(c)d(e)F(g)h., C(d)e(f)G(h)i, etc. But in ‘E’ it is not so—I(j)KL(m)n, i.e., no skipping between K and L.
  15. (A) In all the other groups no letter has been repeated but in (A), the letter ‘R’ has been repeated.
  16. (D) In all the other groups except (D), only two letters have been skipped between the 3rd and 4th letters, e.g., Paa(bc)D, Tbb(cd)E, etc., but in (D) ten letters have been skipped,— Ltt(uvwxyzabcd)E
  17. (D) Here the factor is the form of the letter. Except M all the letters are formed by 3 straight lines. Whereas ‘M’ is formed by 4 lines.
  18. (B) Here letter-number combinations are given, where all the four groups except (B) consist of two consecutive letters and numbers, but in ‘B’ letters are consecutive but the numbers are not.
  19. (E) Here also the form of the letters are concerned. Except ‘T’ all are curved letters.
  20. (C) All the other groups, except ‘C’ consist of letters and numbers and both are skipped, e.g. 4A(5)6(B)C, 2(3)D4(E)F, etc. But in (C) letters are skipped while numbers are not.

 

2) WORD CLASSIFICATION

These questions are like the above examples where there are several basic relationships that could exist between the words. Several types of relationships have been identified and covered below. You do not need to remember the names of these types. You must understand the relationship and be able to solve exercises given below.

  1. Relationship based on meaning

Sample Questions

  1. (A) Abase (B) Lower (C) Humiliate (D) Degrade (E) Elope
  2. (A) Weaken (B) Curtail (C) Separate (D) Mitigate (E) Subside
  3. (A) Hiss (B) Extol (C) Praise (D) Cheer (E) Applaud
  4. (A) Discover (B) Determine (C) Learn (D) Ignorant (E) Ascertain.

 

2.Relationship based on consistency of words

  1. (A) Course (B) Bless (C) Murder (D) Answer (E) Letter
  2. (A) Best (B) Better (C) Good (D) Bigger (E) Volley
  3. (A) Dear (B) Tear (C) Fear (D) Care (E) Sear
  4. (A) Eye (B) Atom (C) Blast (D) Occur (E) Ugly

 

3.  Interrelationship of words

  1. (A) Tiger (B) Leopard (C) Cat (D) Fox (E) Cougar
  2. (A) Venus (B) Mercury (C) Earth (D) Mars (E) Moon
  3. (A) Gold (B) Iron (C) Diamond (D) Copper (E) Silver
  4. (A) Cow (B) Fish (C) Goat (D) Cat (E) Tiger

 

ANSWERS:

  1. (E)All the other words are synonyms or similar in meaning.
  2. (C) All the other words are synonyms.
  3. (A) All the other words are similar in meaning.
  4. (D) All the other words are similar in meaning.
  5. (B) Except ‘B’ all the other words have 6 letters.
  6. (A) Except ‘A’ all the other words have double letters.
  7. (D) All the other words have—‘ear’ in common.
  8. (C) Except ‘C’ all the other words begin with a vowel.
  9. (B) Except ‘B’ all the others are of the cat family.
  10. (E) Moon is a satellite, others are planets.
  11. Here (C) is the answer, as all the other four i.e., Gold, Iron, Copper and Silver are all metals and only diamond is a gem and not metal.
  12. Here though all the five are animals, but only four of them i.e. Cow, Goat, Cat and Tiger belong to the mammals group. Hence the correct answer is (B) i.e. Fish is not mammal

 

3) JUMBLED WORDS/LETTERS

In these questions letters of the words are presented in a disarranged manner. You will have to find out the word by rearranging the letters. As for example, the following words are presented in a disarranged way, you are to find out the word by rearranging the letters and mark the last letter from given alternatives.

Sample Questions

  1. ENRGE       (A) N (B) G (C) R (D) E
  2. SMITE        (A) E (B) M (C) S (D) T
  3. NKIP           (A) K (B) I (C) P (D) N
  4. ATHRE       (A) E (B) R (C) H (D) A

 

ANSWERS:

  1. (A) The word is ‘GREEN’, so ‘N’ is the last letter and thus the correct answer.
  2. (C) The word is ‘TIMES’, here ‘S’ is the last letter.
  3. (A) The word is ‘PINK’, so `K’ is the last letter.
  4. (C) The word is ‘EARTH’, so ‘H’ is the last letter. Here the other possible word is ‘Heart’, but as among the answer choices ‘T’ is not there, so this word has not been considered.

Conclusion: The Verbal Battery is made up of these subtests: verbal classification (students select the word that belongs to the same category as the sample words) and Verification of Truth. This battery provides a reliable measure of verbal abstract reasoning and problem solving skills. There are mini-tests in the verbal reasoning section of the Cognitive Ability or Verbal Reasoning.