In this article we will discuss about the following topics:

  • Conclusion
  • Statement and Conclusions
  • Premise vs. Conclusion
  • The Role of Indicator Words
  • Missing Indicator Words
  • Difference between Inferences and Conclusions
  • Pay Attention to Exceptions and Additions
  •  Identifying supply the conclusion questions
  • Strategy for supply the conclusion questions
  • Pattern of Conclusion Questions
  • Memory Add-on


The Reasoning section of every competitive exam includes questions from the topic “Statement & Conclusion”. This topic is considered to be quiet important and every year a good number of questions are asked from this topic. It is considered to be a very scoring topic. We are providing you with all the important tools to solve Statement & Conclusion questions easily and accurately.


A statement is a group of words arranged to form a meaningful sentence. A conclusion is a judgment or decision reached after consideration about the given statement.

A conclusion is an opinion or decision that is formed after a period of thought or research on some facts or sentence stated by someone. A consequent effect has always to be analysed before reaching to the final result or conclusion of a given premise. This requires a very systematic and logical approach.

In supply the conclusion questions you are presented with a set of premises and are asked to draw a conclusion from them.


premise includes the reasons and evidence behind a conclusion.

conclusion is the statement that the premise supports and is a way of promoting a certain belief or point of view. To help us better identify the premise and conclusion of an argument, we can take a look at indicator words.



Consider the following argument:

  • Since carrots are full of vitamins, it follows that your body will benefit if you eat them.

In this argument, how do we know which part is considered the premise and which part is the conclusion? The premise here is the fact that carrots are full of vitamins. The conclusion is that your body will benefit from you eating carrots.

This statement about carrots includes indicator words. Indicator words provide assistance to you when you are trying to identify an argument and its parts. The phrase Since carrots are full of vitamins uses the indicator word ‘since’ which is often associated with premises. The last part of the sentence uses the phrase, ‘it follows that’ to show that it is a conclusion.


Examples of words or phrases typically included in premises

  • because
  • since
  • given that
  • seeing that
  • as shown by
  • assuming that
  • considering that
  • for the reason that


Examples of words or phrases typically included in conclusions

  • therefore
  • thus
  • it follows that
  • which proves/implies that
  • which means that
  • as a result
  • so
  • we may conclude


A premise and a conclusion may not always look so neat and easy to identify. Sometimes the order will be different than our example. Often there are multiple sentences instead of just one sentence, like we’ve used here. Sometimes there will be no indicator words used at all! It’s important to consider all of the information we are receiving to help you determine if an argument is being made and which is the premise versus the conclusion.



Let’s consider statement about carrots:

  • Carrots have significant vitamin content, according to research. Eating them will benefit your body.

This argument includes a premise and a conclusion without ever using any indicator words. However, you can identify that it is an argument, and which part is which, by thinking through what is being discussed. Clearly, the person making the statement is making the case for eating carrots and giving evidence for why this is a good thing to do. Indicator words can be helpful when we want to make an argument or when we are trying.


These are very common questions in Placements where the candidate is asked to identify an inference or a conclusion based on the argument provided.

There is a very subtle difference between an inference and a conclusion. A conclusion is very specific to the argument that is given in the passage, while an inference is more generic and more generally applicable.


Let’s take a very basic example:

Argument: When lions are injected with certain specific chemicals (X and Y) they start showing erratic and overly aggressive behaviour.

Inference – Chemical injections are not good for lions’ behavioural patterns.

Conclusion – If particular chemicals X and Y are given to the lions they will always behave aggressively.


These examples above might not be absolutely correct and watertight but they give a general idea about the difference between an inference and a conclusion.

Another important difference (that is easier to identify) – Conclusions might or might not be stated in the passage (directly or indirectly), but an inference is never stated in the passage and is almost never directly related to what is said in the passage (it is more of a generic statement that covers the argument made in the passage).


In the passage itself the author might make additions and exceptions to the argument. For example, the use of word ‘specifically’ or ‘especially’ might introduce a specific example. The usage of the phrase “In addition to” might be for introducing an additional/condition. On the other hand, the phrase “despite that” or “while that is true” might be used to make a counter point or a concession to the given argument.

Continuing in the same vein, ‘thus’, is often used to summarize the passage while ‘hence’ and ‘therefore’ are used to present conclusions to the entire argument or a part of it.

Once we identify these keywords, our assumption-argument-conclusion map will become much more refined and help us to answer the question much more easily and with a higher accuracy.


You will be able to spot a supply the conclusion question because it will use words like ‘inferred’, ‘drawn’, ‘conclusion’, etc. for example:

The author is arguing that…

  1. Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn…?
  2. Which of the following must be true on the basis of the statements…?
  3. Which of the following can properly be inferred…?


  1. Identify the premises of the argument.
  2. Assume all the premises are true. Try to combine or link those premises. Is there an obvious conclusion that could be made from these premises?
  3. Eliminate answer choices that don’t deal with or are supported by ALL of the premises, or that don’t make sense from the information given.
  4. If there are two or three answer choices left after the process of elimination, then: choose!

Now for an example the question.

  • Some studies indicate that alcohol advertisements on television cause people to increase their alcohol consumption. In Arcadia, however, where there has been a ban on alcohol advertising for the last ten years, alcohol consumption per capita is at least as high as in countries that do not have such a ban in place.

Which of the following statements draws the most reliable conclusion from the information above?

  1. People tend to consume more alcohol if they are exposed to alcohol advertisements than if they are not exposed to those advertisements.
  2. Advertising has no effect on whether people consume more or less alcohol.
  3. Advertising cannot be the only factor that determines an individual’s consumption of alcohol.
  4. Most people continued to consume alcohol after the ban was implemented.
  5. If advertising for alcohol were allowed in Arcadia, it would be extremely effective.

Again, we need confirm which type of critical reasoning question it is. The question comes after the text and says

Which of the following statements draws the most reliable conclusion from the information above?

We need to find an answer which draws a reliable conclusion from the text, which makes it clear that we are going a supply the conclusion question.

Now we can apply our strategy for supply the conclusion questions.


1.   Identify the premises of the argument

To enable us to draw a conclusion from the text we need to identify the premises.

  1. Alcohol ads increase alcohol consumption.
  2. Arcadia has a ban on alcohol advertisements, and has the same level of alcohol consumption as countries that do not have a ban.


2.   Anticipate a conclusion

Assuming all the premises are true what can we conclude from these premises?

We can conclude that advertisements cannot be the sole cause of alcohol consumption.

Answer C says precisely this.


3.   Process of elimination

Then, eliminate answer choices that don’t deal with or are supported by ALL of the premises, or that don’t make sense from the information given.

A basically supports the first premise, that alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption, but that does not explain or deal with the second premise. Remember in supply the conclusion questions we need a conclusion that makes use of ALL the premises.

B might tempt you, since it says that advertising has no effect on whether one consumes more or less alcohol, but that statement goes against the first premise. Again, remember that we have to assume that all the premises are true.

D and E both go beyond the scope of the argument


4.   Choose the answer

C is the correct answer because it deals with both premises, and can be assumed from both premises


  • One statement with Two Conclusion Based
  • More than Two Statements and Conclusion Based


Statement: Some people say that good thought come in their mind in the morning.

Conclusion: Thoughts come in mind, in the morning only.

Now, consider the statement, the word ‘some’ used in the statement does not mean ‘all’. It means some people say not all. Hence, according to some people, good thoughts come in their mind in the morning but thought can come any time in the mind of other people, so, the conclusion that ‘thoughts’ come in mind, in the morning only is not valid. Also, the word used ‘only’ makes the conclusion totally invalid because it restricts the thought come only in the morning.

To reach to a conclusion think only about the information given in the statement. There is no need to use, assume anything else or add any further or extra information from outside but the established facts cannot be denied like the Sun always rises in the East, a day consists of 24 h etc.


  • If statement is formed with two or more sentences, then there should be no mutual contradiction in sentence.
  • Statements and conclusion should not go against established facts and prevailing notions of truth.
  • If definitive words like all, always, atleast, only, exactly and so on are used, then such words make the conclusion invalid or ambiguous.
  • Always read very carefully and try to find key words as key words play an important role in analysing valid and invalid conclusions.
  • If the conclusion is provided with a stated example, then the conclusion is invalid.


These are several types of questions that are asked form this section in different exams. So, here we have classified the problems in two types which are explained below.

Type 1: One Statement with two Conclusions Based.

In this types of questions, a statement is given followed by two conclusion.The candidate is required to find out which of conclusion follows the given statement and select the correct option accordingly. Following examples will give a better understanding about the type of questions asked.

 Give answer

(a) if only Conclusion I follows

(b) if only Conclusion II follows

(c) if either I or II follows

(d) if neither I nor II follows



1: Statement: Parents are prepared to pay any price for an elite education to their children.


  1. All parents these days are very well off.
  2.  Parents have an obsessive passion for perfect development of their children through good schooling. 

Solution: (b)

It may be conclusion from the statement that since parents want a perfect development of their children through good schooling therefore they are prepared to pay any price for a good education but the statement does not give sense of the parents being very well off. Hence, only Conclusion II follows.



2 : Statement: Interview panel may select a student who is neither possessing the abilities of desired level nor any value and assumption.


  1. Inclusion of experts in interview panel does not ensure that the selection will be made properly.
  2. Interview procedure of admission has some limitations.


The statement clearly means that inclusion of experts does not ensure proper selection. It also indicates limitation of interview procedure for admission. Here, both the conclusions follow.


Type 2:  More Than Two Statements and Conclusion Based

In this type of questions, a statement / statements I / are given followed by some conclusion. Choose the conclusion which follows the given statement.

Directions (1 – 2): Which of the conclusion can be drawn from the statement?


1: Statement: Many business offices located in buildings having two to eight floors. If a building has more than three floors, it has a lift.


(a) All floors may be reached by lifts

(b) Only floors above the third floor have lifts

(c) Fifth floor has lifts

(d) Second floors do not have lifts 

Solution: (c)

It is clear from the given statement.



2: Statements

Karan Johar is a good director.

Directors are intelligent.


(a) All intelligent are directors

(b) Karan Johar is intelligent

(c) Both (a) and (b)

(d) None of these

 Solution: (b)

As directions are intelligent and Karan Johar is good director, so Karan Johar is intelligent.