HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTIONS

To solve Facts Inference and Judgement type questions

Judgements can be identified by observing the tone of the sentence along with the key words discussed above.  If the statement has been given by an individual and a personal compositon, may not be accepted by others, then it is a judgement.  A statement is a fact which can be verified by the “senses”.  Otherwise it is a judgement. If a judgement is based on some facts, then it is an inference.

Let us have a look at an example.

Example

1. So much of our day-to-day focus seems to be on getting things done, trudging our way through the tasks of living  –  it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?
2. We are not doing the things that make us happy; that which brings us joy; the things that we cannot wait to do because we enjoy them so much.
3. This is the stuff that joyful living is made of – identifying your calling and committing yourself wholeheartedly to it.
4. When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love most.
(1)  IIIJ
(2)  IFIJ
(3)  JFJJ
(4)  JJJJ
(5)  JFII

1. So much of our day-to-day focus seems to be on getting things done, trudging our way through the tasks of living – it can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere; where is the childlike joy?

Statement 1 states, “It can feel like a treadmill that gets you nowhere”. This is a personal view point. So Judgement.

2. We are not doing the things that make us happy; that which brings us joy; the things that we cannot wait to do because we enjoy them so much.
Statement 2 is a personal viewpoint not necessarily agreed by many. It is a judgment.

3. This is the stuff that joyful living is made of – identifying your calling and committing yourself wholeheartedly to it.

Statement 3 is an opinion, neither verifiable or directly experienced. It is a judgement.

4. When this happens, each moment becomes a celebration of you; there is a rush of energy that comes with feeling completely immersed in doing what you love most.

Statement 4 is someone’s personal assessment of his own experience.  This cannot be verified. It is also a judgment.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.


PRACTICE QUESTIONS

Following questions which also appeared in earlier Placement tests will be of good help to the test takers.

Direction for question 1-5: Each of the following questions has a set of four sequentially ordered statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following-

Fact: Facts, which deal with the pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification.  The answer option to choose the appropriate statement conforming to Fact  indicates the statement with ‘F’

Inference: Inferences are the conclusions drawn about unknown, on the basis of the known. The answer option indicates such statement as ‘I’.

Judgement: Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future. The answer option indicates such statement as ‘J’.

Select the answer option that best describes the set of five options

 

Question 1

  1. The minister said that the Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan is a wonderful initiative.
  2. The schools of the city have adopted the project and made plans to launch a number of programs
  3. With various segments of the society contributing towards it, Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan is going to be a success
  4. The Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan will go a long way towards a cleaner India
  • JFIJ
  • JIJJ
  • FFIJ
  • FFJJ
  • IFFI 

 

Question 2

1. Given the poor quality of service in the public sector, the HIV/AIDS affected should be switching to private initiatives that supply anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) at a low cost.
2. The government has been supplying free drugs since 2004, and 35000 have benefited up to now œ though the size of the affected population is 150 times this number.
3. The recent initiatives of networks and companies like AIDSCare Network, Emcure, Reliance-Cipla-CII, would lead to availability of much-needed drugs to a larger number of affected people.
4. But how ironic it is that we should face a perennial shortage of drugs when India is one of the world‘s largest suppliers of generic drugs to the developing world.

  • JFIJ
  • JIIJ
  • IFIJ
  • IFFJ
  • JFII

 

Question 3

1. According to all statistical indications, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals.
2. The Mid-day Meal Scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school, thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.
3. Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years are out of school.
4. The goal of universalisation of elementary education has to be a pre-requisite for the evolution and development of our country.
(1) IIFJ   (2) JIIJ
(3) IJFJ  (4) IJFI   (5) JIFI

 

Question 4

1. We should not be hopelessly addicted to an erroneous belief that corruption in India is caused by the crookedness of Indians.
2. The truth is that we have more red tape or we take eighty-nine days to start a small business, Australians take two.
3. Red tape leads to corruption and distorts a people‘s character.
4. Every red tape procedure is a point of contact with an official, and such contacts have the potential to become opportunities for money to change hands.
(1) JFIF   (2) JFJJ
(3) JIJF   (4) IFJF
(5) JFJI

 

Question 5

1. Inequitable distribution of all kinds of resources is certainly one of the strongest and most sinister sources of conflict.
2.  Even without war, we know that conflicts continue to trouble us – they only change in character.
3.  Extensive disarmament is the only insurance for our future; imagine the amount of resources that can be released and redeployed.
4.  The economies of the industrialized western world derive 20% of their income from the sale of all kinds of arms.

(1)  IJJI
(2)  JIJF
(3)  IIJF
(4)  JIIF
(5)  IJIF

 

Make a Judgement Call

Direction: Which two are NOT examples of using intuition to make a judgment call?

1. Sam has to choose whether to go to the college near his hometown or a college 900 miles away where his best friend will be going. Sam’s father recently had a heart attack, so Sam decides to go to the school closer to home.

2. Mr. Wilcox had a ticket on a flight to Paris. At the last minute, he decided not to go. “Something told me not to go,” he told reporters after the plane crashed, killing all on board.

3. The night before a job interview, Pam dreams that she gets the job but someone there belittles her for not being smart enough. When she’s offered the job, at a great salary, Pam turns it down. She tells a friend she doesn’t want to work with people who think she’s dumb.

4. Fred wants to buy a new computer. He researches all the new models, and then shops around and chooses the best deal.


ANSWER KEY

Answer 1

Option 1: The minister said that the Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan is a wonderful initiative. In this sentence the key word is – Minister said, which means we are quoting someone’s opinion, thereby making it verifiable. Since it can be verified hence it is a FACT.

Option 2: The schools of the city have adopted the project and made plans to launch a number of programs.

This entire statement can be verified and hence is a FACT.

Option 3: with various segments of the society contributing towards it, Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan is going to be a success.

Judgments show the approval and disapproval, and this sentence is showing approval for Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan by the use of the word success.

But look at the first part of the sentence- with various segments of the society contributing towards it; this is the reason for success. Thus, this is unknown conclusion based on known facts and hence it is an INFERENCE.

Option 4: The Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan will go a long way towards a cleaner India. This statement gives an approval but does not provide a reason for it hence it is a JUDGMENT.

Thus the answer is option Option 4. 

 

Answer 2 

Check which option provides the verifiable data and which provides the objective conclusion and which option is opinion based. If you evaluate the statement 1 (Hint word: Should)‘Given the poor quality of services in the public sector…’ it is more opinion based hence judgement. Despite knowing the poor quality of service in Public Sector, not every one might agree to it. Another part of the statement “should be switching to private initiatives” is again opinion based, hence qualifies for judgement.

Now find out how many options begin with ‘J’, you find 1, 2 & 5 begin with ‘J’. So eliminate other 2 options.   Now analyse the second statement which has some statistical data and numbers. The statement has the verifiable data hence is ‘Fact’ based. Now eliminate option 2 and focus on option 1 & 5. Since both the options state that statement 3 is ‘Inference’, it is better to move to statement 4 whether it is Judgement or Inference.  The statement begins with ‘But how ironic it is…’ is again purely opinion based and therefore is ‘Judgement’. While Option 5 does not conform to our answer, option 1 does. Hence option 1 is the right answer option. You no longer need to read the statement 3 as it is ‘Inference’ as stated in both the options.

 

Answer 3

Statement 1 is an inference. “According to statistical indications ….” tells us that what follows is based on statistics, hence an inference. This eliminates options 2 and 5.
*In statement 2 (to be evaluated as Judgement or Inference), ‘significant incentive’ is a judgement,(How much significant can be verified though statistical data, then this statement is an inference but not a fact). ‘the vital link” between healthy bodies and healthy minds’ cannot be verified. Hence, it is a judgment.
Options 3 and 4 remain. The options state that sentence 3 is Fact. Sentence 4 to be evaluated as either an Inference or a Judgement. “… has to be a prerequisite for the evolution….” cannot be verified from facts making sentence 4 a Judgment. Hence, the correct answer is option 3 

 

Answer 4

Several things make statement 1 a judgment – ‘should not be’, ‘hopelessly addicted’, ‘erroneous belief’, and ‘crookedness of Indians’; none of them are facts, nor verifiable inferences.
Statement 2 is a combination of inference and facts. ‘we have more red tape’ is an inference, but “the truth is” clarifies that the author take it for granted as there is more redtape and sites an example ‘we take 89 days etc..” which is a fact. Author is not drawing the conclusion from the statistical example, but after confirming we have more redtape just giving an example. Since the thrust of the statement is based on the facts it has to be classified as a fact. Therefore options 3 and 4 are eliminated.
Options 1, 2 and 5 remain. Statement 3 is classified in both options 2 and 5 as a Judgement and surely this is a personal opinion.  Distortion of personal character is a subjective opinion.
Statement 4 is to be evaluated a Judgement or an Inference. The first part of sentence 4 is a fact. In the second part, ‘potential’ is inferred based on facts/experiences. Hence it is an inference. This eliminates options 1 and 2.
Hence, the correct answer is option 5.

 

Answer 5

The first sentence is to be evaluated as a Judgement or an Inference. ‘Most sinister’ is neither verified nor verifiable. It is clearly an opinion, making it a Judgement. This eliminates options 1, 3 and 5.
Evaluating options 2 and 4, one has to decide whether statement 3 is an Inference or a Judgment. ‘Only insurance’ is neither a verified fact nor a verifiable inference. Hence it is a judgment, which eliminates option 4.

Statement 3 is an inference.  We could say “conflicts continue to trouble us” only from our past experiences.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

 

Make a Judgement Call

Answer

Choices a and d are not examples of intuition. Choosing to be close to an ill relative or buy the best computer at the best price are not hunches.